|SC||Variations of sex characteristics|
|GR1||Legal gender recognition without self-determination|
|GR2||Legal gender recognition with self-determination (over 16)|
|GR3||Legal gender recognition with self-determination (under 16)|
|FPN||LGBTI focal points network|
|CA||Ministerial call to action|
Russia has no anti-discrimination law. In fact, an Anti-Propaganda Law was passed in 2013 which prohibits “propaganda of non-traditional sexual relations among minors, manifested in the distribution of information aimed at forming non-traditional sexual orientations, the attraction of non-traditional sexual relations, distorted conceptions of the social equality of traditional and non-traditional sexual relations among minors, or imposing information on non-traditional sexual relations which evoke interest in these kinds of relations”. In the text of the law, “non-traditional sexual relations” are classified as harmful to children and pornographic in nature; the view that they are equal to “traditional relations” is seen as “distorted”. This representation makes LGBTQI people unequal before the law and goes against the rights of children, which should be protected by Russian Constitution.
There are no national policies or action plans to tackle homophobic, biphobic, transphobic or interphobic bullying or promote LGBTQI inclusion.
It is not compulsory for education curricula to include content on sexual orientation, gender identity and expression or variations in sex characteristics. In fact, the Anti-Propaganda Law prohibits the spreading of information about “non-traditional sexual relations” to children.
There is currently no mandatory teacher training on LGBTQI awareness.
The Federal Law on Acts of Civil Status (1997) states that it is possible to correct/change one’s civil gender status “with the presentation of certification by a medical institution, following procedure to be established by the authority for the region, and following state policy and legal regulation of public health”. There are no clear conditions and most applications are therefore refused. Civil society organisations have reported that there is no such restriction in law. There is also no information about attempts of persons under 18 to obtain legal gender recognition in Russia. However, in 2015, the Russian Ministry of Health replied to request about requirements for legal gender recognition, stating that change of documentation could be allowed for a person of full legal age (18 years).
The government does not provide data on homophobic, biphobic, transphobic and interphobic bullying. The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance has repeatedly encouraged the Russian Federation authorities to consider ways of establishing a coherent and comprehensive data collection system in order to assess the situation of the various vulnerable groups living in the Russian Federation, but these measures have not been implemented as of yet.
The government provides no specific support systems for LGBTQI learners or their families.
There is no specific information for LGBTQI learners or guidance for the education sector on how to address bullying and harassment against LGBTQI students. In fact, the Anti-Propaganda Law prohibits the dissemination of all information relating to “non-traditional sexual relations”. Elena Klimova, a Russian journalist, created an online support project for LGBT teens, entitled Children 404. (The number “404” in the project title refers to the internet error message: Error 404 – Page Not Found). In January 2014, she was charged under a Russian federal law criminalising the distribution of “propaganda” of “non-traditional sexual relationships” among minors. On 21 February 2014, the charges were dropped after the court ruled in consultation with a mental health professional that the page “helps teenagers exploring their sexuality to deal with difficult emotional issues and other problems that they may encounter” and did not constitute “propaganda” under the law. In January 2015, Klimova was, again, charged with violating the propaganda law for operating Children-404, facing a fine of 50,000 rubles. The charges were dropped by the court after an appeal. However, in July 2015, Klimova was charged once more and convicted by the same court for violating the law, facing the same fine.
The government provides no support to LGBTQI civil society organisations working in the area of education.
– Russia has not signed the Call for Action by Ministers – Inclusive and equitable education for all learners in an environment free from discrimination and violence.
– Russia is not a member of the European Governmental LGBTI Focal Points Network.