|SC||Variations of sex characteristics|
|GR1||Legal gender recognition without self-determination|
|GR2||Legal gender recognition with self-determination (over 16)|
|GR3||Legal gender recognition with self-determination (under 16)|
|FPN||LGBTI focal points network|
|CA||Ministerial call to action|
There are no anti-discrimination laws that mention sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, or variations in sex characteristics as protected grounds of discrimination with regard to education.
According to the latest report of the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, Greece does not have an effective policy for the protection of LGBT persons against discrimination in education . The Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs implemented the Acts on Development and Operation of the Network for informing, training, preventing and dealing with bullying and school violence phenomenain the general context of the Ministry’s initiatives towards the prevention and treatment of bullying and school violence.
The main goals of this plan are to develop a permanent structure for the prevention and treatment of bullying and school violence at national level; to train the educational executives as well as the educators in tackling bullying; to record, prevent, and tackle bullying at an early age; and to raise awareness and strengthen the participation of the educational community, family and the wider local community. Although the aim of this plan is to tackle all types of discrimination, it does not mention sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, or variations in sex characteristics as protected grounds.
The curriculum does not have any mandatory content on sexual orientation, gender identity and expression or variations in sex characteristics. Furthermore, when included, this content can be hostile. Civil society organisations report the case of a Social Science book that specifies “new types of family, such as unions that do not aim to reproduction (homosexual marriages), that are met mostly in West Europe, raise concerns regarding the legal provisions […]” and “it is noted that for contemporary social scientists, and sociologists specifically, the term «social racism» is the most appropriate, because it also includes other characteristics (apart from colour) that constitute criteria of evaluation of the «different» other (e.g. gender, age, ethnicity, religion, sexual preferences, disabilities etc.).”
Since 2017, the Ministry of Education has implemented a mandatory “Thematic Week” in junior high schools, including a “Gendered Identities” axis. Within this framework teachers may introduce LGBTQI issues. The Ministry expressly suggested that parents should attend this training (on LGBTQI issues) but did not make any reference to students. Teachers, however, are allowed to introduce the subject to students, but this is at their own discretion.
There is currently no mandatory teacher training on LGBTQI awareness. However, some universities offer lessons that include content on sexual orientation, gender identity and expression and variations in sex characteristics. The Department of Early Childhood Education, National and Capodistrian University of Athens offers the following courses:
In October 2017, the Greek Parliament passed a new gender recognition law which allows Greek citizens over the age of 15 to change their official identifying documents to reflect their gender identity by obtaining a court ruling, and formally removes the former requirements that the individual had first undergone a psychiatric assessment and “sex-change surgery.” However, a mental health assessment is still required where the gender change is being requested by a minor aged 15 – 17. This law is in line with a Greek Court ruling in 2016 which declared that sterilisation is nolonger required for the legal change of gender in Greece.
Whilst the new law has been welcomed and is seen as a step in the right direction, it is still considered to be weak and far from perfect. In particular, critics have noted that the requirement that the recognition has to be validated by a local court, instead of a simple, accessible out of court administrative process, and does not allow for full self-determination. In addition, the law still requires any minors aged 15 – 17to undergo a mental health assessment and obtain a certificate from a medical council before theycan access the legal gender recognition process. Critics, therefore, note that the new process is not yet completely demedicalised and still links gender identity to mental health in certain cases, which they note is contrary to human rights.
There are no reported cases of people under 18 who have successfully changed their gender officially.
The government does not provide data on homophobic, biphobic, transphobic and interphobic bullying and there is no educational inspectorate to report on these issues. However, the Racist Violence Recording Network provide information about such cases in their annual report (see Further information).
The government provides no specific support systems for LGBTQI learners or their families.
There is no specific information for LGBTQI learners or guidance for the education sector on how to address bullying and harassment against LGBTQI students.
The government does not provide support to LGBTQI civil society organisations working in the area of education.
– Greece has not signed the Call for Action by Ministers – Inclusive and equitable education for all learners in an environment free from discrimination and violence.
– Greece is a member of the European Governmental LGBTI Focal Points Network.