|Variations of sex characteristics
|Legal gender recognition without self-determination
|Legal gender recognition with self-determination (over 16)
|Legal gender recognition with self-determination (under 16)
|LGBTI focal points network
|Ministerial call to action
The Armenian Constitution (1995, rev. 2005) has an equality clause prohibiting discrimination on grounds of, among other things, gender and “other personal or social circumstances”. This clause fails to mention the grounds of sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, or variations in sex characteristics. The absence of anti-discrimination laws, policies or action plans largely contributes to the violation of LGBTQI young people’s rights.
There are no national policies or action plans to tackle homophobic, biphobic, transphobic or interphobic bullying or promote LGBTQI inclusion.
According to the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, topics related to sexual orientation and gender identity and expression, or the issues of homophobia, biphobia, transphobia or interphobia are not properly covered in sex education classes in schools. Civil society organisations report that educational institutions do not educate about LGBTQI issues. On the contrary, the educational system strengthens existing gender stereotypes, as well as recreating or reproducing stereotypical male and female imagery, attributes, and roles. Particularly, an analysis of elementary school textbooks revealed a disproportionate representation of gender roles with clear domination of the male roles depicted. In textbooks, female roles are mainly discussed in the context of inter-family relations, while male roles are mainly focused on public life.
On a higher education level, this problem is also reproduced. In the State Medical University, sexual orientation is still being taught as part of sexual perversions. There is a centre for gender and leadership studies in the State Yerevan University, but they consider gender as a binary topic. In addition, there were cases when students’ thesis topic was not confirmed in the Sociology faculty of the same university because it was related to LGBTQI issues.
There is currently no mandatory teacher training on LGBTQI awareness.
There are no clear legal or administrative proceedings to change name or gender marker.
The government does not provide local data on homophobic, biphobic, transphobic and interphobic bullying. In the Ombudsman’s Annual Report for 2015, released in April, discrimination faced by LGBT people in the area of education was highlighted. Other research carried out by civil society organisations shows that LGBTQI people experience discrimination within education. A study conducted by Socioscope and Pink Armenia, for instance, revealed a limited understanding of sexual orientation and gender identity in society and set up LGBTQI learners as a vulnerable group in schools. According to this research, at least 21% of respondents had experienced discrimination at school.
The government provides no specific support systems for LGBTQI learners or their families.
There is no specific information or guidelines for LGBTQI learners or guidance for the education sector on how to address bullying and harassment against LGBTQI students.
The government provides no support to civil society organisations working in the area of education.
– Armenia has not signed the Call for Action by Ministers – Inclusive and equitable education for all learners in an environment free from discrimination and violence.
– Armenia is not a member of the European Governmental LGBTI Focal Points Network.